Pre-morbid school functioning and trajectories of mental health and social disability in adolescence and young adulthood.
Adolescent Mental Health PhD Scholarship 2017: School of Psychology, University of Sussex
Supervisor: Professor David Fowler
Start Date: September 2017
Fowler and Banerjee lead an ongoing program of research at the University of Sussex examining the antecedents and course of social disability in young people with and at risk of psychosis. We have a strong track record in this area having completed several trials and cohort studies with young people with psychoses and at risk mental states (Fowler) and investigations of the interface between mental health and social exclusion at school (Banerjee). Our studies have shown that young people with first episode psychosis most at risk of long term social disability often have long histories of difficulties dating back to childhood (e.g., Hodgekins et al., 2015). Related work by Banerjee, including longitudinal analysis, has demonstrated that patterns of social exclusion and withdrawal occur in both primary and secondary school contexts and are associated with specific socio-cognitive, socio-emotional, and mental health profiles.
We currently investigate the emergence of social disability in those with first episode psychosis and at risk mental states (ARMS) presenting to children and young people’s mental health services. We have an ongoing randomised full HTA trial (PRODIGY; Fowler CI and Banerjee co-I) focusing on detecting and intervening in cases with severe withdrawal and mental health problems. We have identified a large cohort of individuals with ARMS (n=270) for whom we examine the course of social disability over 15 months as well as the effects of treatment. The goal of the proposed PhD research is to build upon this project by adding new matched controls who are Not in Education, Employment, or Training, and by tracing back all participants’ school functioning as recorded in the National Pupil Database. The work will identify early risk indicators and trajectories in school functioning as antecedents of subsequent patterns of social disability and ARMS.
1. What are the antecedents of ARMS and social disability in terms of functioning at primary and secondary school? Cognitive and academic problems have already been identified as potential risks for the developmental and expression of ARMS, social disability, and psychosis (Allen et al., 2005; Hodgekins et al., 2015; Norman et al., 2008; Strauss et al., 2012). Unfortunately, studies to date have tended to use only retrospective self and/or observer ratings of pre-morbid functioning. However, extensive and detailed data are routinely collected throughout every child’s school career, with respect to attendance, attainment, fixed-term or permanent exclusions from school, and any special educational needs (both in terms of type and severity of need). Using contemporaneously recorded data on pre-morbid functioning will offer a substantial novel contribution to our understanding of the risk indicators of ARMS and social disability.
2. What are the trajectories of social activity and disability within ARMS, and can they be predicted by profiles of pre-morbid school functioning? Within ARMS, current activity levels seem especially important in predicting transition to psychosis (Cannon et al., 2008; Yung et al., 2006). In the context of the PRODIGY trial, identifying early school functioning markers of later social functioning trajectories would have two major benefits: a) earlier detection of ARMS cases especially vulnerable to transition to psychosis and to long-term social disability in the context of psychosis; and b) identification of cases most likely to respond to the social recovery treatment tested in the PRODIGY trial.
The ongoing PRODIGY trial is focused on detecting and intervening in cases of adolescents and young adults with severe withdrawal and severe mental health problems. This PhD project builds on this work by gathering data on how participants in the PRODIGY trial who have at risk mental states functioned at school pre-morbidly, using the National Pupil Database. Our aim is to study the course of social disability throughout childhood and adolescence with respect to a range of background factors in terms of school functioning, including attainment, attendance, school exclusion, and special educational needs. This will enable us to examine pre-morbid school functioning with respect to the course of social disability in the early course of psychoses and effects of treatment within the PRODIGY cohort. We also propose to compare this cohort to matched controls to examine the effects of antecedent school factors. We will draw upon our extensive experience using longitudinal modelling in this area.
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